[/center]Amal Mohamed Khalil El Ashkar Supervised
by Prof. Dr. Khalid Ibrahim El FakharanyProfessor & Head of Psychology Department - Faculty of ArtsTanta University Prof. Dr. Mohamed El Sayed El SatihaProfessor of Cardiology - Faculty of Medicine - Tanta University
The importance of the current study :
This study interested in the psychological health of the individual, and the individual is a part of the community, he needs to enjoy the personal, social adjustment and emotional balance, positive, innovative, creative, feel happy and satisfied, to emphasize and achieve the same aspirations, sometimes this person have disabilities or illnesses, however it does not hinder the mental energies, it was found that many of the scientists and geniuses who have physical disabilities, but did not affect there mental abilities, such as Taha Hussein, dean of Arabic literature, and Helen Keller, dumb, blind hearless, her life was busy with good humanitarian appeals for the care of persons with disabilities, and she visited most of the countries of the world including Egypt, have a lot of lectures and honored by most world leaders and U.S. President at that time and the men of science and received a master's and doctorate and she studied psychology.
The role of this study is to achieve psychological adjustment to heart disease patients who suffer from maladjustment which accompanied to heart disease, and can achieve such a study to any other disease through the work of training counseling programs, to develop a number of mental skills in order to raise the efficiency of the psychological characteristics as their counterparts such as compatibility with high, such as optimism which associated with happiness, health, perseverance, achievement and positive view of life as it is positively correlated with all the restraint and self-esteem and psychological adjustment, as it increases the efficiency of the patient's immune system (Ansari, 1998; Shukri, 1999; Abdul-Khaliq, 2000 ), and self-esteem which has been found that contains a set of important characteristics such as efficiency and self-confidence, and realism of achievement and independence, all of which are related to psychological health and psychological adjustment (Kristen, 1999), and quality of life which means that the individual must live a good life, include the enjoyment of life, and a sense of happiness and a sense that the individual is aware of the meaning of life (Ventegodt, et al., 2003), all seeking to improve the psychological state of the individual to allow him the opportunity to achieve a better satisfaction of needs, whether the psychological or social needs and to reduce his tension and restoration of poise procedure.
This study has succeeded in improving the maladjustment among a sample of the study of heart disease patients, and there is no objection from the work of such a study on patients with other diseases or healthy in different areas of work, through: --
1- Search for psychological characteristics necessary to improve the maladjustment of individuals who suffer from maladjustment , it shows during treatment with others that may be sometimes aggressive or frustration or fear or anxiety or other emotions, which are not accepted by the other party and society )Folkins, 1976(, and by using the standard measurements and tests we can get the psychological characteristics of high compatibility with the existing environment in the study.
2 - Development of these characteristics at the low-consensus through counseling programs include lectures, symposia and cultural publications and posters in pursuit of a positive adjustment .
3 – Stat evaluation after each meeting to confirm the message out during the meeting by asking some questions about what took place in the modern, or to answer queries and questions.
4 - Note the changes that occur with the low compatibility through interviews of individual or collective task, or better still in need of assistance?
5 – Apply the standard measurements , which show the response of individuals and the degree of improvement in their psychological adjustment .
6 - And if the psychological adjustment to the members of the community in various fields done, we find that:
- The employee will work with love and understanding and improve treatment of the public.
- The teacher will work honestly, faithfully and to improve the treatment of students.
- Lawyer will be loyal in his work and takes into account the rights of his client, and be faithful to him.
- Engineer proficient in his work ,does not cheat in the specifications.
- The seller does not cheat or take advantage of the consumer of the goods.
- The doctor does not take into account the patients take advantage of their vulnerability and their need for medical care.
- The artist provides the honorable image of the country and provide solutions to social problems.
- The press secretary must be honest in presenting the story and presentation of events.
The psychologist , and the guidance has an important role in the understanding of the psychological adjustment process and methods used by the patient or client to achieve adjustment )Biôrk, 1998(, it is known that human beings always go for the process of adjustment, some of them succeed in the process in a positive way, some of them succeed in the process in a negative way as psychological or mental illness or psychosomatic disorders, each of them is a process of adjustment but in a different way, however, that the difference among them due to their respective abilities to interact with the environment, and thus respond to both the proper form or the form of patients. Researchers believe that the person who is consistent with other positions in life in general is the people in line, and who agree with his social values prevailing in his people is compatible with the others believed that a sense of social responsibility is compatible people, while others think that the person who is compatible in a group may be considered non-compatible in the other group, and this means that the provision of the compatible or non-compatible can not be reached until after the study of culture and the individual analysis (Abdel-Khalek, 2001; Green, 2000 ). The psychological adjustment includes the ability of the individual to change behavior and habits when faced with a problem or a new material, social or ethical conflict or psychological change to suit this new circumstances and shows the psychological maladjustment in the individual's inability to solve the various problems of daily life (Oxman, et al., 1994).
What is the current study can provide to the community
1 - This study provides a good example of a successful counseling program to treat the psychological maladjustment of patient to receive good medical care.
2 - This study has shown that exercise improves blood circulation which increases the patient's improved health and psychological state and increase his compatibility with the surrounding )Koyama, et al., 1976(, and this will reflect on his relationship with family members and others
3 - Raise the awareness of heart disease patients causes and symptoms and methods of treatment and prevention provide the cultural background of patients )Milani & Lavie, 2007(, which help them to act to protect their families in the future.
4 - Relaxation exercises, with psychological guidance, and recreational programs have been instrumental in increasing the degree of psychological )Oldenburg , et al.,1985 (, as well as social relations through social activities and cultural programs developed psychological adjustment .
5 - The social and psychological support assist in the achievement of social and psychological adjustment )Green, 2000( and the interdependence increases the family relationship)Nyamathi, et al.,1992( because it helps to reduce anxiety and depression which cause psychological maladjustment.
6 - Optimism is an important source to overcome the mental and physical health)Colligan, et al., 1994 (, as it helps patients to control the emotions when they get a disease , and not linked with sexual behavior, which expose the person to infections of sexually transmitted diseases )Taylor, et al., 1992( .
7 - Optimism helps to improve the mood and the individuals can accept the life)Glatzer & Vokert , 1988( and it work to reduce Systolic Blood Pressure and heart rate )Scheier & Carver, 1987(, which confirms the importance of optimism for the survival and liberalization from the risks that kill physical health by reducing saturated fat and body fat and risk factors) Shepperd, Maroto & Pbert, 1996( .
8 – Also they found that self-esteem is the most variable stable and changes in direct proportion with the psychological adjustment and more as the age increase ) Swenson, et al., 1993 (, and it is work to reduce the degree of anxiety and depression)Coleman,1985( also associated with efficient and self-confidence and merit ( In Khairy & Hasan, 1990 ) and if the degree of self-esteem get higher in a person he get more linked to the reality of achievement motivation )Kristen, 1999(.
9 - The quality of life was no less than optimism or self-esteem ,and if the individual was loving his life , his psychological adjustment will be much better)Urizar, 2002( , and the age does not limit the quality of life)Sedrakyan, et al., 2003( for this the current study had all stages of life (24-87 years) and were happy with their participation in the program, such as young people, studies have demonstrated that success, whether medical or surgical treatment is no longer measured by mortality or by the amount of illness caused by the disease but it is measured by the improved quality of life and it is effect on the patient's mental functions )Jones, et al.,1992(.[/justify]